Programming is “the action or process of writing computer programs”.
Programming by definition encompasses analysis, design , coding, testing, debugging, profiling and a whole lot of other activities. Beware Coding is NOT Programming. Depending on which school of thought you belong to, you will define the relationship and boundaries between these various activities.
- In a waterfall world, each activity is a phase and you want a clear sign-off between each phases. Also these phases are sequential by nature with very limited or no feedback. Hence you are expected to have the full design in place before you can code. Else, what do you code?
- In RUP (so-called Iterative and Incremental model) even though it follows a spiral model with some feedback cycle every 3 months or so, one is expected to have the overall architecture of the project and a documented design (in UML notation) of the subset of use cases planned for the current spiral ready before the construction (coding) phase.
- In the unconventional model (where we don’t have process & tool servants and team members can do what they think is most appropriate in the given context), we fail to understand these sequential, rigid processes. We have burnt our fingers way too many times trying to retrofit ourselves into this sequential, well-defined process boundaries guarded by process police. So we have given up the hope that we’ll ever be as smart as the rest of the “coding community” and have chosen a different route.
So how do we design systems then?
- Some of us start with a test (not all, but just one) to understand/clarify what we are trying to build.
- While others might write some prototype code (read it as throw away code) to understand what needs to be build.
- Some teams also start by building a paper prototype (low-fidelity prototype) of what they plan to build and jump straight to the keyboard to validate their thought process (at least once very few hours).
- Yet some others use plain old index cards to model the system and start writing a test to put their thoughts in an assertive medium.
This is just the tip of the iceberg. There are a million ways people program systems. We seem to use a lot of these practices in conjunction (because they are not mutually exclusive practices and can actually be done in parallel).
People who are successful in this model have recognized that they are dealing with a complex adaptive system (CAS) and not a complicated system, where you can define rigid boundaries and be successful. In a CAS, there are multiple ways to do something and if someone makes a claim that you always have to do X before Y, we can sense the desire of putting rigid constraints which by nature are fragile. This is the same reason why there is no such thing called Best Practices in our dictionary. Instead we keep an eye on emerging patterns. If we want to see a particular pattern impact the system, we introduce attractors. But if we don’t want a pattern to impact our system we disrupt that pattern. (rip-off from Dave Snowden, creator of the Cynefin model and leading personality in Knowledge Management Community)
The open source community in general, is yet another classic example which fits into the unconventional category. I’ve never been on an open source project where we had a design phase. People live and breath evolutionary design. At best you might have a simple wiki defining some guidelines.
Anyway, I’m not saying that upfront design is bad. All I’m saying is, don’t tell me that one always has to design first. In CAS, you tend to “Probe-Sense-Respond” and not “Analyze-Respond”. In software development “Action precedes Clarity”, almost always.